What analysis is used for the tumor marker CEA
Tumor markers or tumor markers are specific substances in the human body, the concentration of which in blood, lymph or other it is possible to suspect the presence of any disease. First and foremost, these markers are of great diagnostic value for the diagnosis of cancer at an early stage. Different tumor markers are used for different forms of cancer. But keep in mind that the analysis is not specific. Increased concentration of tumor marker in the body is not always indicative of cancer. Such a result may occur in other diseases and pathologies of the human or even in healthy people. Tumor marker CEA is one of the markers used to detect cancer. With its help diagnose cancer of the colon and rectum, as well as assess the effectiveness of the treatment of these forms of cancer.
Characterization of tumor markers
Cancer markers are used not only for the purpose of primary diagnosis of cancer, but are of great importance to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment in the process of dynamic observation of patients. Such monitoring of the patients allows to diagnose early recurrence. Evaluation of the effectiveness of anticancer therapy allows to change the method of treatment more effective.
Today a huge number of tumor markers, each of which is used for the diagnosis of tumors of various organs:
- DOG – to detect prostate cancer, but can also be elevated in cases of injuries of the prostate and prostatitis;
- AFP – is increased in primary liver cancer;
- calcitonin and thyroglobulin is evidence of malignant tumors of the thyroid gland;
- HCG – increased in the embryonic types of cancer or ovarian cancer;
- CA 15-3 – a tumor marker for breast cancer;
- CA 19-9 – tumor marker pancreatic cancer, bile duct, gallbladder, liver, stomach, colon and rectum;
- CA 125 is a tumor marker of ovarian cancer;
- CEA (cancerreally antigen) is a tumor marker of colorectal cancer, kidney, stomach, pancreas, bladder, lung and other organs. But the CEA tumor marker mainly used for diagnosis of rectum and colon.
There are also other tumor markers. The analysis should take into account their sensitivity and specificity. Estimation of concentration may be inappropriate.
Tumor marker CEA
Marker CEA is most often used to detect colorectal cancer, but elevated concentrations of this antigen may indicate other types of cancer or diseases of another nature. These include:
- cirrhosis of the liver, hepatitis and pancreatitis;
- inflammation of the intestines;
- hypothyroidism (lack of thyroid hormones);
- pathology of the biliary tract;
- obstructive pulmonary disease.
Also in smokers, there is a significant increase in the tumor marker. This should be considered in the analysis. The rate of tumor marker CEA is 2.5 ng/ml for nonsmokers, for smokers, the norm is the indicator value to 5 ng/ml.
For analysis for tumor markers tend to make the blood of the patient. Holding fence is the morning. The patient should not eat prior to blood sampling. Stored blood should be no more than two hours before the study of blood serum.
If the transcript of the tumor marker CEA showed its increased concentration in the human body, it is cause for further examination of the patient. On the basis of a single analysis, the diagnosis is not made. You need repeatedthe analysis for confirmation. The study of the patient's blood on a regular basis allows you to assess the dynamics of state changes. This is especially important for those patients who were diagnosed with cancer. In the process of tumor treatment are constantly studying the concentration of tumor markers in the body. If there has been a sharp increase in the concentration, the tumor breaks up (cells stop growing). Also, the increase of tumor marker level above 100 ng/ml is evidence of metastatic cancer.
After a series of tests or at the same time the patient is administered additional tests to identify causes of increased values of tumor markers.