The tumor marker Cyfra 21-1: Cytokeratin 19 type
Tumor markers are used for initial diagnosis and treatment of tumor diseases. This is a very diverse group, which includes antigens, cytokeratin, enzymes and hormones. They are useful in the diagnosis of colorectal cancer, lung cancer, ovary, prostate, liver, pancreas, stomach. Learn more about tumor marker, CYFRA 21-1, which is described in our article.
Cyfra 21-1: what is it?
Biochemical diagnosis of cancer has an important place in diagnosis. Particularly Cytokeratin 8, 18 and 19, increased the expression of which was demonstrated in a series of tumors. Cytokeratins are proteins of intermediate filaments found in the cytoskeleton of epithelial tissue. CYFRA 21-1 is a cytokeratin 19 fragment that is soluble in serum. Released after cell death, fragments of intermediate filaments are soluble in serum and, therefore, detected with monoclonal antibodies. The transcript of the tumor marker CYFRA 21-1 is carried out in the laboratory.
In spite of this, is expressed in all body fluids, its main presence is detected in the lungs. As the most sensitive tumor marker CYFRA 21-1 is used in the diagnosis and prognosis, in particular for tumors of squamous cells.
The tumor marker CYFRA 21-1 is used in the set of reagents for determining the marker monoclonal antibodies. Reacting specifically with cytokeratin 19 type. Results CYFRA 21-1 has high usefulness in the diagnosis of lung cancer, but can also be used in the diagnosis of several other cancers, particularly when abnormal cells develop in the flat epithelium.
It is advisable to use this token for the study and observation of processes of such diseases:
- lung cancer;
- bladder cancer;
- cancer of the esophagus;
- cancer of the cervix.
This soluble fragment of cytokeratin 19, is present in the plasma of various lung diseases. In addition, cancer of the stomach and esophagus. The limit of the tumor marker CYFRA 21-1 (this is the concentration above 3.5 ng/ml) may indicate the existence of a continuous process of lung cancer.
It is important to know
Individual study of cytokeratin in serum is not the primary diagnostic method. For full confirmation of the disease the doctor prescribes other methods of diagnosis (histological, clinical). Basically, the tumor marker CYFRA 21-1 is recommended in cases where there is a disputed issue or difficulty of the result of the first diagnosis.
Also, the tumor marker can detect cancer at an early stage, when other methods won't find. Therefore, it is recommended for people with elevated risk of lung cancer, such as smokers.
The increase in the concentration of CYFRA 21-1 in blood will depend on the stage of development of the disease. If the initial diagnostic tumor marker showed a higher concentration of a tumor marker, then the marker continues to be used to monitor the development and growth of the tumor. If after surgery the tumor marker showed a decrease in concentration, this shows the effectiveness of the treatment.
The slow decrease in the level of tumor marker, there is reason to assume that the resection was not successful and there are remains of abnormal cells. And if further diagnostics observes the increase in the concentration of a tumor marker, so possible relapse. Be aware that the increase in the concentration of CYFRA 21-1 may occur for several months before showing signs of the disease.
There are false positive results. This happens in non-malignant diseases, e.g., renal failure, chronic hepatitis or fibrosis of the lungs.