Tumor markers of the breast: types and purpose of
The breast tumor markers are substances, usually proteins or hormones, which are produced in the body in response to the tumor. They are in the blood, urine, or tumor tissue. Markers show different stages of tumor progression and tumor growth, and they can be used to improve diagnosis and treatment.
The use of tumor marker
The first step in the diagnosis is mammography, breast ultrasound. All of these diagnostic methods are sensitive enough to detect breast cancer before you show any symptoms. If there are any suspicious signs, then biopsies are performed in conjunction with tumor marker of breast cancer.
Happen false positive results as well as proteins and hormones, which detects diagnosis, sometimes produced in the body and under other conditions (e.g., diseases of the liver, kidneys and pancreas). But if the tumor marker is higher than normal, definitely need to complete additional studies to confirm or refute the disease.
Tumor markers are used for the following purposes:
- To help in the identification of the tumor and its growth;
- To prescribe the correct treatment;
- To determine the risks of developing breast cancer;
- To help detect cancer at an early stage, when there are no signs or symptoms.
What is the tumor marker shows breast cancer and what are the different types – it knows only an experienced specialist. For a General overview, let's briefly examine.
What are tumor markers?
Tumor markers the tumor will help the doctor to personalize the treatment and to classify breast tumor in accordance with the molecular subtype. The difference between these subtypes is important because the results such as the amount of time without progression, survival and response to therapy vary depending on the subtype. Knowing the molecular subtype of your tumor will allow doctors to provide a prognosis and to choose the most correct treatment. Molecular subtype of breast cancer, and tumor marker of breast cancer will help before the symptoms to identify the disease.
The types of tumor markers in breast cancer:
- Cancer antigen (CA) 15-3 and 27-29. These tumor markers are present in almost 50-90% of patients suffering from metastatic breast cancer. However, high levels can indicate other diseases. These tests also monitor early relapse after initial treatment of the primary tumor. This method is performed to determine the success of cancer treatment. Tumor markers of the breast with mastitis will show a slight exaggeration of the norm (this can also indicate benign tumors.
- ADF (urokinase plasminogen activator) and Pai-1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor). These tumor markers are present in large quantity in the aggressive forms of breast cancer that progresses very quickly. These tests require special methods of storage of tissue for testing. Test for these tumor markers is to determine whether chemotherapy after surgery in patients with lymph nodes breast cancer.
Decrease in levels of tumor markers compared to baseline is a good indication that the cancer is responding to treatment, and increase in levels usually means that the therapy is not suitable and cancer not amenable to this method of treatment.
Indicators of tumor markers
Most often to detect cancer of the breast doctors use the CA 15-3 tumor marker that is. Abnormal most likely indicates the presence of cancer cells. For this type of tumor markerthere are several thresholds of indicators, each of which treats the possibility of the presence in the breast cancer.
The presence of a cancer antigen in the blood and his explanation:
- Not more than 20 U/ml of blood is normal;
- From 21 to 30 U/ml in the blood is above normal (threshold);
- More than 30 U/ml in the blood indicates a high level;
- 50 U/ml and higher – too high a level.
As a rule, about the disease, the doctor begins to speak, when the concentration exceeds 30 Units/ml. Often, the tumor marker CA 15-3 is carried out with CEA (symbol cancer-embryonic antigen), the rate of which shall not be higher than 5 ng/ml. the rate of tumor marker CA 27-29 breast of iron is not more than 40 U/ml.
Decryption is only possible with a doctor-mammalogy. Basically, the diagnosis only because of the increased level of conducted tumor marker is not. Only after a comprehensive examination and consideration of all the results, the doctor will be able to draw a conclusion about the presence of cancer.