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A benign tumour. Why it happens?

Pathological tissue growth altered cells is called a tumor. This occurs under the influence of various environmental factors, and under the influence of internal failures. The tumor is benign or malignant. How do they differ? Why is formed a benign tumor? Its types.

The tumor is benign or malignant:

The benign tumor:

  • slow growth;
  • the lack of inclination to sprouting in the surrounding tissue, to metastasize;
  • complete recovery of the body after removal.

The distinction of malignant from benign tumors:

  • rapid growth;
  • the ability to invade nearby tissues and damage their structure;
  • separation of tumor cells through the lymphatic and blood vessels (the propensity to metastasize).

Benign tumor: causes

Causes of neoplastic transformation are unknown until the end. At the core of the process lies the genetic damage that leads to disruption of education, growth, reproduction and cell death. DNA damage can provoke the following factors:

  • Chemical:
    • work in harmful conditions (inhalation of poisons and poisonous vapors);
    • Smoking;
    • alcohol;
    • drugs and other chemical substances.
  • Physical:
    • ultraviolet radiation;
    • ionizing radiation.
  • Mechanical:
    • various injuries, fractures etc.
  • Biological:
    • viruses.
  • The failure of the immune system.
  • The improper functioning of the endocrine system (hormonal failure).

Most often, the tumor develops under the influence of multiple factors.

Stages of tumor growth

In its development of a benign tumor goes through several stages:

1. Initiation.

The process of changing the DNA of the target cells under the influence of harmful factors. And mutating at least two genes: one of them is responsible for the immortality of abnormal cells, the other for its reproduction. To detect the tumor at this stage is really hard.

2. Promotion.

The growth of a population of mutated cells. This can happen within a few years.

3. Progression.

The formation of a tumor, its growth.

Types of benign tumors

A benign tumor may develop from any tissue. Depending on its type there are types of tumors:

1) Epithelioma.

Develops from flat and cylindrical epithelium. Is formed on the skin and mucous membranes. The clinical forms are varied:

  • epithelioma Malabre (arises from cells of the sebaceous glands in children; in the form of a single dense and movable nodule on the face, neck, shoulder girdle or scalp);
  • adenoid cystic epithelioma (multiple painless swelling bluish, yellowish or whitish hue; often striking face and ears).

The main method of treatment is surgical excision.

2) Adenoma.

Develops from the glandular epithelium. Can occur in any organ where there is glandular epithelium. The clinical picture depends on localization of the tumor.

Pituitary adenoma is localized in the area of the Turkish saddle. Symptoms:

  • endocrine-metabolic disorders;
  • ophthalmoplegias signs;
  • x-ray.

A benign tumor of the thyroid gland is localized in one or both lobes. Features:

  • weakness and drowsiness;
  • sinus tachycardia;
  • weight loss;
  • shortness of breath;
  • explicit nodes on palpation of the gland.

Prostate adenoma is localized in the thickness of the body. Features:

  • urination disorder;
  • phenomenon renal disease (thirst, ammonia breath, polyuria, loss of appetite, etc.).

Benign pancreatic tumor even in the initial stage hormonal changes. The complaints of the patientscan be very different.

Very rare benign tumor of the kidney. Adenoma may be single or include cysts. Prone to zlokacestvennoe.

3) Fibroma.

Develops from connective tissue. Is formed on the skin, mucous membranes, tendons, uterus and breast.

Benign breast tumor characterized by a spherical lump in the breast, painless. In the premenstrual period may be a mild swelling of the breast.

A benign tumor of the uterus is accompanied by:

  • uterine bleeding;
  • prolonged menstruation;
  • pain during intercourse;
  • pressure on the bladder and pelvic area;
  • pain in the lower back.

Fibroma of the skin characterized by the appearance of formation in the dermis and the subcutaneous tissue of the Nude. Plantar fibroma is painful when walking or prolonged standing.

4) the Lipoma.

vrachiDevelops from the adipose tissue. Found in the shoulder girdle, shoulders, thighs. Painless and movable tumors. Another name is Wen.

5) Leiomyoma.

Originates from the smooth muscle fibers. Most often found in the uterus, digestive tract, prostate, bladder, on the skin. A benign tumor of the bladder, skin, esophagus is considered as dizontogeneticheskie tumor; uterine – as a result of hormonal failure. The tumor has a clear boundary, a dense structure, round shape.

6) Osteoma.

Formed from bone tissue. Is localized on the bones in various places. Very rare.

7) Chondroma.

Develops from the cartilage tissue and localized in those organs where this tissue is. As a rule, treatment of benign tumors is surgical methods. Radiation therapy is used less frequently. The choice in favor of this method depends on the location of chondroma, its size, relationship to adjacent tissues, risk of complications.

Other types of benign tumors:

  • lymphoma (lymphoid tissue);
  • raʙdomioma (striated muscle);
  • the cystadenoma (benign epithelial ovarian tumors);
  • neuroma (nerve tissue).

A benign tumor of the liver can be of different nature (fibroma, lipoma, hemangioma, etc.). The disease is asymptomatic. The growth of the tumor may be signs of compression of surrounding organs.