Tumor of the kidney. What is it?
Pathological growth of tissues of the kidney leads to the development of kidney tumors. Cells like crazy (the same thing happens with other tumors) and begin to divide uncontrollably, they also "forget" which on belong, but they have a new ability: the ability to spread through the blood and lymph vessels and form new tumors (metastases).
Classification of kidney tumors
Most often used classification based on clinical and radiological features. Based on these, allocate groups of tumors arising from the renal parenchyma, and tumors originating from renal pelvis.
Benign tumors of the kidney:
- Angioma of the pelvis,
- Papilloma of pelvis,
- Leiomyoma of the pelvis.
Malignant tumors of the kidney:
- Renal cell cancer,
- A mixed tumor Wilms,
- Muco-glandular cancer of pelvis,
- Transitional cell carcinoma of pelvis,
- Squamous cell carcinoma of pelvis,
- Sarcoma of the pelvis.
The list is quite large, but the vast majority of kidney tumors are malignant, belong to renal cell cancer.
Why develop renal tumors?
- Genetic predisposition
- Failure of the immune system
- The effects of radiation,
- The effects of some carcinogens and harmful substances.
For example, it was revealed that among people in contact working with aniline dyes, tumor in kidney are much more common. But why in similar circumstances some people develop a tumor, while others do not, science can not yet answer. The real causes by which risk factors lead to tumor is not yet known.
How to exhibit yourself of kidney tumor?
A benign tumor is practically invisible until it reaches considerable size. Such tumors are not dangerous and effectively treated, and they occur infrequently. So focus on the symptoms of a kidney tumor, which is malignant in nature. Malignant tumors also manifest themselves not immediately. As a rule, if a person makes a complaint, the tumor is at an early stage.
Common signs of the tumor in the body:
- Weight loss,
- The periodic increase in temperature.
Symptoms associated with a kidney tumor:
- Hematuria blood in the urine. This symptom is characteristic of kidney damage. When tumors in this organ hematuria may occur on the background of well-being and not accompanied by pain, as in other diseases of the kidneys. It can then disappear, then appear again.
- The appearance of tumors in the abdomen or lower back, which can be felt during examination.
- Swelling of the legs, which are caused by compression of the tumor of the inferior Vena cava.
- Increase in blood pressure. This symptom can be caused by different effects of tumors: compression of the arteries of the brain metastases, the formation of arteriovenous shunts, development of a tumor increased amount of renin (one of the enzymes that regulate blood pressure). This same symptom is very often accompanied by a tumor of the adrenal glands.
- Pain in the lumbar region. They occur when there is blockage of the ureter, compression of the nerve endings or the tumor has already grow into adjacent organs.
In addition, can disrupt the production of various hormones, which adds to the symptoms associated with their imbalance. It can be an increase in the number of red blood cells or calcium in the blood, the liver. Although hormonalimbalance is often a symptom of a tumor of the adrenal glands because they are the real generator of hormones in our body.
Based on what diagnosis?
- The patient's complaints,
- Analysis of blood and urine,
- Ultrasound examination of abdominal cavity
In order to establish how widespread the tumor, perform a CT scan, magnetic resonance imaging. For suspected metastases need to do a chest x-ray, pelvis and chest, because these areas are most often metastasizes the tumor growing in the kidney. To identify bone lesions will have to do radionuclide scanning. Of course, any diagnosis of the tumor can't do without a biopsy, which gives an idea about the cellular composition and character of a neoplasm.
Treatment and prognosis
The main treatment of kidney tumor surgery. During surgery can be removed a kidney from the surrounding fatty tissue, and ureter. Some modern techniques allow us to perform organ-saving operations. However, the risk of relapse remains high, therefore, resorted to them only in the early stages of the disease or the impossibility of radical surgery.
As an additional treatment used hormonal and immunotherapy. As palliative measures (to facilitate the patient's condition) is used for radiation therapy.
Treatment prognosis of kidney tumor depends on the stage of the disease. The earlier the diagnosis and treatment is started, the higher the percentage of successful treatment. If the operation is done in the first stage, when not yet begun metastasis of tumors, and it has not spread to adjacent organs, the five-year survival rate is up to 80%. But when distant metastasis is only 5%. However, you should never lose hope, because there is always a chance to get it in the interest that overcame the disease.