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Tumor of the pancreas

The pancreas is located deep in the upper abdomen. In the functioning of organs and systems of the human body, it plays a huge role. Enzymes produced by the pancreas, involved in protein, carbohydrate and fat metabolism. This small organ that secretes insulin to regulate the sugar level in the blood. Any tumor of the pancreas interferes with the functioning of the body in varying degrees. The person feels pain, appear dyspepsia. Their intensity depends on the location of the tumor, its type and size.

Histological classification of tumors of the pancreas

There are the following types.

    1) Epithelial tumors:

    • benign pancreatic tumor (adenoma, cystadenoma);
    • malignancy (squamous, acinar, undifferentiated carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, cistadenokarcinoma).

    2) Tumors of pancreatic islets.

    3) non-epithelial formation.

    4) Tumors of mixed character.

    5) Metastatic formation.

    6) Lymphoid and hematopoietic education.

    7) Unclassified tumors.

    8) Benign tumors of the pancreas


    • slow growth;
    • the absence of metastases;
    • preserving the structure of a native tissue;
    • the lack of germination in neighbouring organs.

    Benign growths are very rare. Equally often in men and in women.

    Varieties of benign tumors:

    • adenoma and cystadenoma (come from epithelial tissue of the body);
    • fibroma and lipoma (originate from connective tissue);
    • leiomyoma (formed from muscle tissue);
    • lymphangioma, hemangioma (originate from vascular tissue);
    • neuromas and ganglioneuromas (neurogenic origin);
    • an insulinoma (derived from pancreatic islets).

    Number of formations:

    • single;
    • multiple.

    The location:

    • a tumor of the pancreatic head;
    • a tumor of the tail;
    • combined tumor.

    Causes of benign tumors is unknown. Doctors and scientists call risk factors:

    • genetic predisposition;
    • bad habits;
    • improper diet;
    • the ecological background of the place of residence.

    Clinical signs of benign tumors:

    • the symptoms of hormonal changes of the body – weakness, unexplained feeling of fear, sweating, vertigo and even loss of consciousness (characteristic of insuloma);
    • pain on the right or left side of the navel, sometimes radiating to the left arm, shoulder blade, sometimes with surrounding the character; can be permanent or paroxysmal (characteristic of tumors of considerable size);
    • jaundice (if the tumor in the pancreas head and pressure on the common bile duct);
    • nausea, vomiting, heaviness in the stomach after eating (when compression of the duodenum).

    Despite the fact that the tumor is benign, it can be a starting point of some dangerous pathological conditions:

    • The conversion to a malignant pancreatic tumor (malignancy).
    • Biliary intoxication (if the tumor constricts the common bile duct).
    • Pancreatitis (acute or chronic inflammation of the pancreas).
    • Endocrine diseases.

    How to detect a benign tumor?

    ultrazvukovoe issledovaniya Usually benign neoplasm in the pancreas for a long time does not manifest itself. It is found incidentally during a routine ultrasound examination or during examination for other pathologies.

    To clarify the diagnosis, your doctor mayguide for computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, to offer to take the General and biochemical blood analysis, blood test for tumor markers, etc.

    Treatment of tumors of the pancreas only online. If the formation is diagnosed, it already manifests itself clinical symptoms, then you need to remove. In addition, after the operation, and detailed histological studies to determine benign or malignant tumor.

    Types of operations for tumors of the pancreas:

    • a partial resection (removal of part of the body that is used in the localization of education in the tail of the gland);
    • husking (removal of the tumour is used when insuloma);
    • pancreatoduodenal resection (excision of the mass localized in the head of the pancreas together with duodenum);
    • mini-invasive laparoscopic surgery (with a small education that is concentrated in the tail of the gland, with no symptoms of malignancy).

    Rehabilitation after resection of benign tumors of the pancreas:

    • limit starchy foods, fatty, fried, spicy, salty during the year;
    • supplementation with pancreatic enzymes;
    • restriction during the first three to six months with physical exercise.
    • wearing an elastic belt of two to three months (to prevent the formation of postoperative hernias);
    • Spa treatment (periodically).

    The first two years of Supervisory ultrasonography every six months, then once a year.

    Malignant tumors of the pancreas

    One of the most difficult to diagnose and difficult to treat. Tumor of head of pancreas leads to impaired patency of the duodenum, the common bile duct. A tumor of the gland body can grow the wall of the stomach. Education concentrated in the tail of the body, can grow the splenic vessels. Cancer of the pancreas can capture the whole body.

    The symptoms of tumors of the pancreas:

    • abdominal pain, often increasing at night;
    • loss of appetite, aversion to the usual toxic body products (coffee, alcohol, tobacco), meat and fatty food; weight loss;
    • General weakness, sleep disturbances;
    • migrating thrombosis of peripheral veins;
    • obstructive jaundice, darkening of skin and urine, light faeces; itching;
    • palpation revealed distended gall bladder;
    • disturbed digestion (due to lack of bile and enzymes in the gut), resulting in rapid weight loss, diarrhea, steatorrhea;
    • heaviness in the stomach, even after small amounts of food, burp something rotten, vomiting (in severe cases of compression of duodenum);
    • gastric or intestinal bleeding manifested by vomiting up black ground, or chair, charcoal black (at germination of a tumour in wall of duodenum or stomach);
    • enlargement of the spleen, anemia, leukopenia or thrombocytopenia (with compression of the splenic vein);
    • excessive thirst, dry mouth, frequent dizziness, itchy skin (with the destruction of pancreatic islets);
    • ascites (with the defeat of the portal vein metastasis; late symptom of malignant tumors of the pancreas).

    Unfortunately, none of these signs cannot be considered early. In addition, none of them is specific for cancer of the pancreas. Therefore, for any ailments need to be examined.

    Diagnostic procedures:

    • ultrasound examination of the abdominal cavity (visible tumor two centimeters);
    • computed tomography (allows to specify the position, size of tumors,involvement in malignancy of other organs);
    • magnetic resonance imaging (in terms of information comparable to a computer);
    • positron emission tomography (reveals the prevalence of the tumor, metastases; injected into the body, the radionuclide is absorbed by cancer cells; later made images depicting the distribution of matter);
    • radiography of the stomach and intestines (allows to estimate the deformation of bodies under the pressure of a tumor or to identify the germination of education in wall);
    • angiography (examination of blood vessels in the affected area);
    • fibrogastroduodenoscopy and oral cholangiopancreatography (introduction of the endoscope into the affected organs with the purpose of the analysis of place expressions and biopsy).

    Cancer of the pancreas, detected even at early stages, has a poor prognosis. Five-year survival rate is ten percent.

    To prevent the appearance of tumors of the pancreas can, eating properly and balanced, abandoning bad habits. Helps physiotherapy, periodic Spa treatment.