The tumor of the rectum. How can you recognize?
The rectum is located in the pelvis. This is the ultimate division of the large intestine length of 15-20 cm, which completes the formation and accumulation of feces, and leadeth them out. The rectal tumor is benign or malignant.
Benign tumors – alarm bells
A benign tumor of the rectum may be epithelial and not of epithelial origin. It is formed from any tissue (muscle, connective or adipose) or from lymph and blood vessels (these neoplasms are rare). Benign tumors include:
- cavernous angiomas;
- villous tumors.
Most of them are defined on palpation. Fibroma, myoma, neuroma, and lipoma located in the subserous layer of the rectum, therefore, can only be detected during operation.
Benign tumor in the connective tissue. Has a dense structure and small in size (1-1. 5 cm), light pink or Nude shade and smooth surface.
- irritation of the rectum during a bowel movement;
- hormonal disorders (during pregnancy, diabetes, or acromegaly);
- papilloma infection.
Symptoms of colon cancer:
- the impossibility of a dense circuit of the anus;
- slight pain when urinating;
- blood in the stool;
- inflammation (due to injury fibroids and infection waste products of the body).
The fibroids must be treated. Untreated, the tumor increases in size, interferes with the normal emptying of the bowel is often injured and can degenerate into malignant. The main method is the removal. Methods:
- surgical excision;
- laser removal;
- radiowave surgery.
The choice of method depends on the nature, size and location of the tumor. The operation is performed under local anesthesia. Hospitalization is not required.
Is formed from submucosal tissue or muscular longitudinal fibers. Can be in thickness of walls or act as dense polyp. In the rectum appears very rarely.
- hormonal imbalance;
- inflammatory processes in the intestine;
- intense exposure to UV rays.
Signs of colon cancer:
- the presence of mucus in the stool;
- foreign body sensation;
- frequent urge to defecate;
- blood in the stool (if damaged).
The main method of treatment is removal.
These benign tumors are even rarer. Are single lobed tumors in the subserous or submucosal layer. Have a soft structure, grow slowly and rarely become cancerous. A lipoma usually does not bother the patient. People know about it only when it significantly increases or falls out of the anus.
Pulsating tumor of spongy structure. Represent multiple cavities with blood. Differ bright crimson hue. The tumor is easy to squeeze, and just as easily it takes the same form. Often a cavernous angioma bleed. Can shawlette and fester.
The main method of treatment is removal. With the defeat of the thickness of the intestinal wall and the outside may require resection of the entire modified portion of the rectum.
Formed from the epithelium of the mucosa. Have different structure, shape and size.
- long-term inflammatorydisease (dysentery, ulcerative colitis);
In the early stages of symptoms. Later symptoms such as:
- pain in the intestine;
- stool with mucus or blood;
- frequent stools;
- intestinal obstruction.
Polyps have a tendency to malignancy. Treatment of colon cancer depends on its size and prevalence. Single polyps can be removed through the anus with a scalpel or electrocautery. If histological analysis confirmed the benign nature, the treatment ends.
If struck by all the rectum, it is necessary it is completely removed. In secondary polyposis is the consequence of dysentery, ulcerative colitis or proctosigmoiditis – treat the underlying disease.
Villous tumor of the rectum
Multiple papillary growths of the mucosa. Can shoot a large portion of the rectum. May also be formed separate tumor nodule, highly mobile, soft structure. Villous tumors are round or oblong in shape, pinkish hue, a velvety or papillary surface covered with villi.
- blood and mucus during defecation;
Villous tumor is prone to degeneration into malignancy. Therefore, when the detection shows its removal and subsequent histological examination.
How to recognize malignancy?
Malignant tumor of the rectum may develop from benign neudenau (especially of villous tumors or diffuse polyposis). Cancer causes are not fully understood. Let's denote the risk factors that increase the likelihood of developing the disease:
- prolonged exposure to the body large doses of alcohol;
- papilloma infection;
- the lack of physical activity;
- eating large amounts of fatty and high-calorie food;
- genetic predisposition;
- long-term Smoking;
- age after fifty years.
The disease goes through several stages:
- 0 – the tumor is concentrated in the inner part of the rectum;
- 1 – the tumor is approximately thirty percent of the mucous membrane, but beyond it is not growing;
- 2 – tumor extends beyond the colon, without affecting lymph nodes, it reaches five centimeters; the tumor is less than five inches, but spreads to the lymph nodes;
- 3 – affected more than half of the rectum in the circle and nearby lymph nodes;
- 4 – metastasis striking adjacent organs (uterus, pelvis, vagina, urethra), there is distant metastasis.
In the early stages have no symptoms. They appear later and worsen as the disease:
- preceding the stool bleeding;
- failure in bowel habits (constipation, diarrhea, ribbon-like feces, incontinence of feces and gases); after defecation relief does not occur, the patient feels in the intestines, a foreign body;
- violation of the General condition (weight loss, fatigue, anemia, weakness and other indicators of intoxication).
Methods of diagnosis:
- by means of x-ray contrast enema;
- computed tomography;
- tumor markers;
Methods of treatment:
- surgical removal of the tumor or part of the rectum with the tumor;
- radiation therapy;
The prognosis depends on the stage of the disease. If you have been diagnosed with cancer of the rectum first stage, the five-year survival rate is eighty percent. At the second degree – sixty percent. In the third ten-twenty. In the fourth stage fiveno one is home.