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A tumor of the thyroid gland. More dangerous than you think!

Thyroid gland is an organ of the endocrine system, with a complex structure and a great variety of cells. It produces a variety of hormones that regulate many systems in our body. Just five minutes later the thyroid is whole blood, which is in the body. The unique structure of the authority has determined the uniqueness of neoplastic processes. The biological characteristics of thyroid tumor are less aggressive than tumors in other organs. And prognoses after treatment of malignant forms are more optimistic.

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Thyroid tumor: types

Tumor formation differ in origin, symptoms, biological features and prognosis. According to the morphological characteristics of the following types of thyroid tumors:

  • the epithelial (it can be benign thyroid tumor (follicular adenoma) and malignant (follicular carcinoma, medullary, undifferentiated, cell carcinoma));
  • non-epithelial;
  • malignant lymphoma;
  • secondary tumors;
  • other tumors;
  • tumor-formation;
  • unclassified lesions.

Thyroid adenoma – a benign tumor in the form of an oval or circle with a well defined capsule. It grows very slowly but can occur at any age. Sometimes reaches a great size and puts pressure on surrounding organs. There is a risk of transformation of an adenoma into cancer.

Morphological variations of thyroid adenoma:

  • follicular tumor of the thyroid gland (sometimes macrofollicular and microfollicular, colloid and fetal, and embryonic trabecular);
  • adenoma composed of cells Hurtle;
  • clear cell adenoma;
  • papillary;
  • functioning adenoma (Plummer disease), and others.

The types of thyroid cancer:

  • papillary;
  • follicular;
  • anaplastic;
  • medullary;
  • lymphoma;
  • sarcoma;
  • squamous.

Symptoms of thyroid tumor

For all types is characterized by the formation of node in the thyroid. At large sizes there is a hoarseness, pain, signs of compression of trachea and esophagus.

Symptoms of tumors depending on the view:

  • Structure.

For malignancies characteristic of dense nodes.

For benign – soft consistency, long-term benign adenomatous hyperplasia may receive the calcification site.

  • Growth.

A malignant tumor most often occurs suddenly and is growing rapidly. Common signs of infiltrative ingrowth of the node into the surrounding tissue of the thyroid gland, and nearby organs and tissues.

A benign tumor has no signs of infiltrative growth. It may suddenly increase if a hemorrhage in the site. But almost always in that case there is severe pain.

  • The condition of the vocal cords.

Thyroid cancer, infiltrative recurrent laryngeal nerve on the side of the node there is a paralysis of the vocal cords. It can occur as a violation of phonation, and no visible signs. To detect paralysis, should be using laryngoscopy to inspect the glottis.

Causes of tumors of the thyroid gland

Causes of benign and malignant tumors in the thyroid gland is still not revealed. Can only be described in the risk factors:

  • radiation treatment of head and neck;
  • stay in areas where there is a high level of radiation;
  • hormonal disruptions in the body;
  • heredity;
  • malignant or benign tumors in other organs.

Treatment of thyroid tumor

In the case of cancer is usedonly surgical method of treatment. The extent of surgery depends on the condition of the patient and extent of injury of thyroid. Most often used thyroidectomy (total removal of the organ) and hemithyreoidectomy with isthmus (removal of one lobe with connecting isthmus).

Benign nodes in the thyroid gland is also recommended to remove because of the risk of their transformation into a malignant tumor.