Breast cancer: extent
The detection of the tumor in the breast must be examined to determine whether it is malignant. For this purpose different tests and examinations. Directly cancer diagnosed by biopsy. The degree distribution, the condition of the tumor and surrounding tissue is determined using ultrasound, computed tomography, bone scan. These surveys allow us to determine the stage of disease. The definition stage is necessary to obtain three-dimensional paintings and appointment of adequate treatment.
Breast cancer: the prevalence
In the beginning, emit zero stage, the so-called precancerous condition. At this stage non-invasive cancer develops. It may be ductal carcinoma. Such a diagnosis in case of detection of abnormal cells in the ducts of the breast. Many doctors regard this condition as cancer, but it is revealed that in some cases, ductal carcinoma progress to invasive cancer.
- Breast cancer 1 degree initial stage invasive breast cancer. The tumor already formed, but its size does not exceed 2 cm, Cancer cells can penetrate into the breast tissue, but beyond the organ has not yet come.
- Breast cancer 2 degrees can look very different. It may be small (not more than 2 cm) tumor, but with metastases in the axillary lymph nodes. The variant without metastases, but a tumor larger (5 cm or more). Thus, breast cancer stage 2 involves the possibility of defeat not only of the breast. So, need an appropriate treatment strategy.
- Breast cancer grade 3 is further subdivided into three options: A, B, C.
Option 3A means that the tumor is about 5 cm, but cancer has spread to axillary lymph nodes. And they are soldered with each other or with other tissues. Possible tumor spread to chest lymph nodes.
The tumor extent 3B may be of any size, while it grows into the skin of the breast or to the chest. Perhaps a combination of swelling of glands, formation on the skin nodules. In some cases there is inflammatory carcinoma. Thus the mammary gland is reddened, swollen, because the cancer cells clog the blood vessels.
Breast cancer stage 3 C means the cancer had spread to various lymph nodes: axillary, chest, supraclavicular, subclavian.
- 4 breast cancer – distant metastases. The tumor extends to different organs: bones, liver, lungs, brain. When the diagnosis of breast cancer stage 4 is not always possible the operation, often resort to treatment aimed only at alleviating the symptoms.
Among the degrees, or stages, of the disease some scholars have identified recurrent cancer. This recurrence of the tumor after treatment. Some time, the tumor does not manifest itself, but the fact that even a few cancer cells remaining in the body, can again be activated and begin new tumors. To remove all the abnormal cells often not possible already in the second stage, when the tumor itself is small, but has gone beyond the breast.
How to start a breast cancer?
The beginning is invisible. In the first stage, there is a small seal, it may not cause any sensations. Further may change the shape of the glands, sucked nipples, nipple discharge, soreness, increase in the axillary lymph node from the affected side. These are the main symptoms of breast cancer. In the last stages joined by symptoms of General intoxication (weakness, fatigue, weight loss), due to the activity of the tumor.
How to treat breast cancer?
For small tumors in the first stage is carried lumpectomy – removal of the tumor itself. As a rule, aftersurgery prescribed radiation therapy and chemotherapy. These additional methods destroy the abnormal cells and reduce the risk of recurrence of the tumor. On the second and third stages often have to resort to surgery to remove the breast (mastectomy). After some time, you can fill the resulting cosmetic defect using plastic surgery.