Neorogovevayuschy squamous cell carcinoma: signs, diagnosis, treatment
All malignant tumors of the skin and mucous membranes represent the one General term "cancer." The most widely keratinizing and neorogovevayuschy ploscockletocny skin cancer. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most malignant and aggressive cancer. Most often it manifests itself in old age, both men and women.
The mechanism of development of squamous cell carcinoma
To date, there are three types of skin cancer:
1) squamous cell carcinoma;
3) basal cell carcinoma.
Melanoma is the most aggressive form of malignant tumors of the skin. Squamous cell carcinoma is an invasive tumor with squamous cell differentiation. It metastasizes and grows in all organs and tissues, sometimes resulting in death.
With the development of squamous neorogovevayuschy cancer occurs infiltrative growth of epithelium. This happens due to the cells located in the spinous layer of the dermis. These cells are atypical and have a chaotic arrangement. They come in different sizes, shapes, hyperplasia or hyperchromatism cores. With neorogovevayuschy form of squamous cell carcinoma cells have a more pronounced atypical. While keratinizing form, they have the tendency to keratinization, and cells are formed in the form of "pearls".
In the development of squamous cell carcinoma plays a major role senile keratosis. Other predisposing factors include pathological condition of skin: presence of scars, old injuries and burns, precancerous lesions, atrophy. Squamous cell carcinoma may develop on the background of chronic inflammation, dermatitis, lupus tuberculosis of the skin. Also there is a certain relationship between the papillomas and the development of cancer.
Types of squamous cell carcinoma
Squamous cell skin cancer, in turn, is divided into the following types:
- verrucous carcinoma;
- spindle cell carcinoma;
- acantholytic cancer;
- lymphoepithelial cancer.
Diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma
The diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma is confirmed with histologic examination, cytologic scrapings and laboratory methods. For histological examination take a piece of the abnormal tissue and examined under a microscope. In the presence of a malignant process in the tissue will be visible abnormal cells.
The tumor consists of a set of atypical cells, characterized by invasive growth into the subcutaneous tissue and dermis layers. There are so-called horn pearls. They are a hotbed of hyperkeratosis with symptoms of incomplete keratinization. For neorogovevayuschy form are characterized by cords of epithelial cells with explicit polymorphism.
During the cytological examination carried out with scraping the upper surface of skin (wound or ulcer). To detect metastases is possible, if you get an MRI or a CT scan. Squamous neorogovevayuschy cancer should be differentiated from a basal cell carcinoma, Paget's disease, keratoacanthoma, cutaneous horn and Bowen's disease.
The symptoms of squamous cell carcinoma
Signs of squamous cell carcinoma depends on its species and can vary a bit. As a rule, at exophytic form a tumor looks like a solitary node. He can rise above the surface of the skin, has a dense texture and a wide base. To the touch it is slow moving, and on top of this node is covered giperkineticescom layering.
Ulcerative type of malignancy of the nodule is covered with ulcers of irregular shape, with a crater bottom.The tumor is fixed, at its periphery has child elements. It is capable to destroy the surrounding vessels, tissues and bones. Glubokoe squamous neorogovevayuschy form of cancer can take place with a pronounced inflammatory process.
When the verrucous form of cancer education covered with warty growths. Such a tumor rarely metastasizes and is characterized by slow growth. The patient with squamous cell carcinoma complains of pain in the affected skin ulcers.
The tumor in this type of cancer is rapidly increasing in size and emit an unpleasant odor. It stands out from the serous-bloody fluid, which eventually becomes covered by a crust. With the progression of the disease, the tumor begins to grow in depth of tissues.
In place of formation of metastases is the seal of the lymph nodes, they become painful, and disintegrate after ulceration infiltrates. Ulceration of the nodule is usually to 4 or 5 month from the moment of its formation.
Treatment of squamous cancer neorogovevayuschy
Treatment of squamous cell carcinoma primarily depends on the stage of the malignant process, the structure of the tumor and its localization. Of great importance is the age of the patient, and his General health.
The most basic method of treatment is considered surgical removal of the tumor. Also widely used complementary therapies, such as cryosurgery, laser therapy, chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy.
For large formations commonly used surgical intervention with complete removal of pathological lesion within the healthy tissue. To eliminate small foci or multiple use the method of electrocoagulation or cryodestruction. Recurrence of squamous cell type of cancer are removed using radiotherapy, aromatic retinoids and chimichurri.
Chimichurri has a high level of cure with maximum preservation of healthy skin around tumor formation. Radiotherapy is used in cases where there is education in the lips, nose, and eyelid and also for the treatment of the elderly. Metastasis can be eliminated, if we draw the radiation exposure of the malignancy.
An important role in the treatment of any oncologic disease is the return of immunity. Weak immune system leads to repeated relapses and complicate treatment. Therefore, the first task is the restoration of the immune system in various ways.
Among other things, to maintain immunity and prevent recurrence, the patient is assigned immunomodulators. Thanks to their acceptance of the immune system begins to self-struggle with atypical cells.
Prevention of squamous cell carcinoma
The main method of prevention is timely treatment of cancer and precancerous lesions. To do this, anyone must undergo periodic medical examination to detect pathology. Also, every patient needs to know beginning signs of malignant tumors of the skin: any moles that have changed color, delivering a worry wart or a strange rash needs to be examined by a dermatologist. Self-medication in this case can lead to serious complications in late stages of skin cancer.
People with sensitive skin avoid prolonged stay in the sun. Before going out you need to apply to the skin with special sunscreen. Patients with a history of cancer of the skin, you need to get on a clinical account and be under the supervision of a physician oncologist.
Since we have already proved that it is notthe last role in the development of the disease plays a the immune system, it is necessary to monitor their health and nutrition. You cannot eat foods that contain preservatives, meats, marinades, sodas, etc. exercise and fitness will help keep the body in good shape and to prevent many diseases.
The prognosis for squamous cell carcinoma
The prognosis of squamous neorogovevayuschy cancer depends on the stage and severity of cancer. But, in General, squamous cell skin cancer has a favorable prognosis. With early diagnosis and timely treatment to achieve total cure of the patient and to prevent complications and relapses.
At the later stages you can achieve the life expectancy of the patient in 5 years in 60% of cases and more. On the background of successful treatment, the prognosis of survival is more than 90% over the next 5 years.