Cure of squamous cell skin cancer can
Skin cancer is one of the most widespread oncological diseases. According to statistics men are more susceptible to this disease than women, at one hundred thousand people, accounting for about 50 with skin cancer. If we consider the geographical distribution, the CIS countries, more people have skin cancer in the South of Ukraine, the Rostov region, Stavropol and Krasnodar regions, the Republic of Moldova. This disease develops at the same rate as other cancers.
Why skin cancer is distributed unevenly around the world?
- the tumor occurs more often in residents of southern regions;
- more susceptible to tumors with light skin, for example, African Americans are 10 times less sick with cancer of the skin;
- more likely skin cancer from fishermen and sailors, people are constantly working outdoors.
The most important factor that increases the risk of getting skin cancer is exposure to ultraviolet rays. The same applies to the effects of radiation, but this is true for other types of cancer. Also subjected to tumors in workers in chemical plants or related activities, having contact with soot, tar, pitch or arsenic.
There are such diseases which if neglected, it can lead to skin cancer. Among them: erythroplasia Keir, Bowen's disease, Paget's disease, and xeroderma pigmentosum. Obligate precancer, always leads to cancer, to the optional precancer include: dermatitis chronic, poorly healing ulcers, inflammatory and degenerative processes.
Among the chronic inflammatory processes leading to cancer of the skin: burns, radiation dermatitis, pyoderma, ulcers, lupus erythematosus. Cicatricial processes: after various injuries after skin diseases, after cancer "Kangri", cancer kioro" cancer "sandulovich burns".
The clinical picture
Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin occurs to the same extent as other parts of the body. He usually gives metastases in 6% of cases metastases are striking the lymph nodes, sometimes they fall on the bone, and even light, much less develop adenocarcinoma from the subcutaneous glands.
Cancer starts with the formation of small knots not exceeding the size of a match head, in this period, few people go to the doctor. The bundle becomes more convex, thick, color, or matte white, or yellow.
With time the tumor grows, but does not cause any disturbances, plaques have the same yellow or grayish-white color with a waxy sheen. Feel that elevation may be smooth or slightly rough, the edges have a scalloped contour. Over time, in the center there is a retraction with scales or crust, if you try to disrupt, there will be blood. Along with the increasing size of the tumor will be formed eroded land with jagged edges.
The symptoms of squamous cell carcinoma
Despite the similarity of squamous cell carcinoma to basal cell carcinoma, the symptoms do differ. Any education, whether it be ulcers or tumors during this type of cancer grow very fast. If there was an infection, it will be full-blown pain. Cancer begins to develop around the plaque site or ulcer.
The symptoms of squamous cell skin cancer are the following:
- if cancer ulcerative, around the perimeter of the affected area raised edge. The ulcer is visually similar to a crater, sometimes there stands the blood, unpleasant smell. New lesions develop rapidly and in area and in depth;
- if the nodular form of cancer, the wound similar to cauliflower. On the basis of it is wide, and the top lumpy. The bright color usually ranges from red to brown, the density of node is high. The outside node has an ulcer or erosion, they are also rapidly progressing.
- cancer in the form of a plaque has a bright red color,bleeding and covered with small tubercles, the formation of high density, first the tumor spreads wide and then deep.
If a cancerous tumor is formed in the rumen, it becomes more dense, the outside cracks. Regional metastases can go to the groin, armpit and neck. If cancer is in lymph nodes, they become more dense at first, but remain movable and do not cause discomfort over time, become fixed, painful and grow to the skin.
Most often, squamous cell carcinoma localized on the external genitals, perianal region and on the lower lip.
Stage of development
Squamous skin cancer develops in specific stages. Everyone knows that if you go to the doctor in the initial stages, the ability to overcome the disease is very high.
Stage 1: the diameter of the lesion not more than 2 cm, only affects the dermis and epidermis, the surrounding tissue does not apply, the tumor is still not attached and moves freely with the skin, no metastasis.
Stage 2: diameter of lesion more than 2 cm, it affects the deeper layers of the skin, but other tissues does not apply, the metastases were not expressed, not more than one.
Stage 3: the tumor is of large size, almost not movable, grows in all layers of the skin and captures the surrounding tissue, but the bones still do not get it. There are minor metastases.
Stage 4: the tumor is larger, grows of all tissues and bone. There are numerous metastases, regional and remote movable not movable.
The most important thing at this stage to make a differential diagnosis, that is, you should discard the possibility of Bowen's disease, basal cell carcinoma and pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia. The diagnosis must be confirmed on histological examination and cytological scrapings from the ulcers, the last method is very easy to find atypical cells. It is also worth to be examined lymph nodes as they when metastasis is affected first.
Treatment of squamous cell skin cancer can be done in several ways: radiation, surgical, medicinal, cryodestruction, laser. The treatment prescribed by a doctor after a thorough diagnosis and medical history, it all depends on the structure of the tumor, stage of disease, location of the tumor and General condition of the patient.
When small tumors are more likely to use cryotherapy, but it cannot be used if the tumor invaded the scalp where there is hair. For small tumors radiation therapy is used, good results are a dose of 50-70 gray. The results will be worse for tumors near the eyes, nose, ears or around the cartilage. This method has its advantages and disadvantages, the main disadvantage is the damage of healthy tissues and the duration of treatment (at least a month).
Drug therapy is used in virtually all cases, but is not used as a separate method, and only as a Supplement to another, usually goes together with surgery or radiation therapy. Laser destruction and cryotherapy is used for large tumors, especially if squamous cell cancer has reached the bones or cartilage.
In the presence of metastases in the first place, all efforts must be aimed at removing the primary tumor. Further, the metastases can be removed surgically, it concerns themselves of tumours and suspicious lymph nodes. If the spread is fixed, it before surgery recommended radiation therapy.
Local chemotherapy is prescribed in cases of small tumors or recurrences. After this treatment the unwanted cells cease to grow and the existing irreversibly damaged.
Surgical treatment and photodynamic therapy
Surgery is used to treatthe initial lesion and metastases. Also used for recurrence after radiation therapy if the cancer has formed in the rumen, and if the tumor is quite large, the main part is removed, and then applies another kind of treatment. If surgical treatment is applied on the face, the operation takes place according to the principles of plastic surgery.
Photodynamic method used for the localization of the tumor on the face, therefore, no adverse effects on the lens of the eye and on the nasal cartilage and other healthy cells . The principle of this treatment is that the patient is administered a light-sensitive photosensitizers, and after three days, irradiated with light. Photodynamic therapy can be repeated several times in a row, as no side effects no.