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Kidney cancer: symptoms, diagnosis, treatment

Among all cancers kidney cancer costs approximately 10 and according to statistics is about 3%. Most often the disease affects the male population, which is associated with harmful conditions of production and Smoking. A large percentage between the ages of 40 to 70 years. The prognosis of kidney cancer depends on the structure of the tumor and extent of malignant tumors.

Commonly found renal cell cancer, which accounts for 40% of recorded cases. On the second place after him are the cancer of the ureter or pelvis of the kidney (20%), followed by sarcoma (10%).

Causes of kidney cancer

Causes of kidney cancer is not fully understood, but there are a number of contributing factors:

kurenie 1) Smoking: it increases the chance of disease by 40%;

2) hereditary diseases under many congenital kidney disease can develop malignant tumors;

3) ecology: the harmful effects of the environment leads to the appearance of atypical cells and promotes the growth of tumours and the change of tissues in the body;

4) diseases of the urinary system include injury, infectious diseases, kidney cysts, kidney stones, and others;

5) the age of the patient maximum the peak incidence of kidney cancer at the age of about 70 years;

6) overweight obesity increases the risk of developing kidney cancer by 20% (this is due to violation of hormonal background);

7) syndrome Berta-Hogan-Dube: in this disease often develop a variety of tumours, including cancer of the left kidney or right kidney cancer;

8) tuberous sclerosis is a genetic disease that causes growth of benign tumors and sometimes the appearance of kidney cancer;

9) work with harmful chemicals such as asbestos or cadmium (under this category are workers of the steel mills);

10) disease van Hippel-Lindau leads to growth of tumors in the body.

Other causes of kidney cancer include high blood pressure, kidney dialysis, diet with plenty of fats, the hormonal drugs, certain viruses, diabetes, irradiation, and others.

Signs of kidney cancer

Signs of kidney cancer may not differ from the usual signs of kidney disease or carry concealed. The main symptoms are hematuria, pain and the presence of a tumor in the kidney, increased blood pressure, proteinuria, varicocele, venous thrombosis.

Hematuria, kidney cancer can occur suddenly and as suddenly disappear. Then over time, blood in the urine appears again: there are blood clots. In the future, hematuria becomes a cause of anemia.

Pain in kidney cancer is aching in nature. Sometimes it occurs as renal colic. Stronger pain with hematuria.

Common symptoms add to the urination disorder. In some cases, you may experience a significant increase in body temperature, especially in the evening.

In the later stages of cancer development occurs dilatation in the region of the abdominal wall or the spermatic cord. By the time of diagnosis about one third of all patients already have metastases throughout the body. For them, characterized by such symptoms: bone pain, hemoptysis, jaundice, cough, weight loss, weakness, poor appetite.

Types of kidney cancer

According to the morphological characteristics of kidney cancer is divided into several basic types:

1) clear cell kidney cancer;

2) hromofobnye kidney cancer;

3) papillary cancer.

Clear cell kidney cancer originates from the epithelium of the proximal tubules. Affected cells become light in colour, thanks to the glycogen content. This type of kidney cancer accounts for 80% of all other types.

Hromofobnye type of kidney cancer is 5% of all malignant diseases of the kidneys. The tumor processstarts from the medullary collecting duct. He has the aggressive growth and development.

Papillary kidney cancer is usually found in men. It is 15% from all other types. Papillary cancer is bilateral or multifocal.

Diagnosis of kidney cancer

If you suspect a kidney cancer patient is undergoing tests at the urological field. This includes examination of the patient, laboratory methods and analyses:

  • intravenous excretory urography;
  • retrograde pielografia;
  • ultrasonic tomography;
  • computed tomography;
  • biopsy;
  • selective angiography;
  • urine;
  • a blood test.

For examination technique of excretory urography to a patient intravenously injected contrast agent, which allows you to view the work of the kidneys. During an ultrasound examination it is possible to spend a puncture biopsy. This method of examination is most reliable. Selective angiography allows you to explore the kidneys and to detect any type of malignancy.

Metastasis in kidney cancer

Metastases in kidney cancer can occur by hematogenous or lymphogenous way. First of all, the metastases formed in the bones, lungs, brain or liver. In lymphogenous way metastases are in the lymph nodes of the renal gate, paramvalue nodes in the para-aortic nodes.

The prognosis of kidney cancer with metastasis is approximately 12 months. Only 10% of the patients reach 2-year survival. The important role played by timely access to a physician and detection of malignant tumors. In 75% of cases, the metastases formed in the lungs, 65% in lymph nodes, 45% in the bones and in 41% in the liver.

The treatment of kidney cancer

operaciyaTreatment of kidney cancer is carried out depending on the structure of the tumor. As a rule, the patient with kidney cancer is the surgical method of treatment: radical nephrectomy. The patient is completely removed the kidney with the surrounding tissue, lymph nodes and the adrenal gland. Only at the very early stages of the disease can be performed partial resection of the kidney. After surgery, the survival rate at 5 years ranges from 50% to 70%.

Practically not used for the treatment of kidney cancer radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or hormone therapy. They are not effective in this case. Only in young children a malignant tumor is treated as surgical methods, and with the help of radiation therapy.

To improve the survival of patient with the help of immunotherapy. Immunotherapy kidney cancer is interleukin or interferon alpha. Immuntherapie increases the survival rate by about 15% and gives positive results in treating all types of kidney cancer.

Targeted therapy of kidney cancer

To new and effective methods of treatment of malignant diseases of the kidney refers targeted therapy of kidney cancer. A method of targeted therapy is the impact of special preparations on cancer cells, while healthy cells remain unchanged. Side effects with this treatment significantly reduced.

Targeted therapy acts on specific molecules and cell mechanisms that create the growth and spread of tumors throughout the body. She is able to fully replace immunotherapy or act in combination with it. Cancer cells start to grow two times slower.

Targeted therapy in kidney cancer is suitable for people who are not helped by the chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Drugs targeted therapy: Nexavar, Pazopanib, Torisel, Bevacizumab, Inlite, and others. They all allow you to extend the life of the most hopeless patients for months or years. This treatment can be applied by people of any age and gender.

Prognosis and prevention

People who received treatment at the first stage of kidney cancer have a 90%the survival rate over the next 5 years and even more. Patients with stage cancer have 5 year survival in 75% of cases. Patients with stage 3 kidney cancer ranged from 40% to 70%. Patients with stage 4 cancer have a survival rate from 10% to 40%.

Prevention of kidney cancer is to eliminate bad habits, especially Smoking. Under any alarming signs of the patient should immediately consult the doctor and undergo a full examination. Persons on the account regarding hereditary diseases should also periodically pass all the necessary tests and be examined.

If you have kidney disease, they need time to heal. To avoid hypothermia, prolonged stress and neurosis. A healthy lifestyle helps to maintain normal immunity it exercise, a proper balanced diet, elimination of bad foods from the diet.