Symptoms of thyroid cancer. When it happens?
Thyroid cancer can not be called often diagnosed oncological disease. The disease most often recorded in patients after forty, though perhaps in childhood. At risk were most often women, and often manifestations of the disease are hereditary in nature. In addition, symptoms of thyroid cancer can occur after the transfer of prior diseases. Most dangerous in this case are:
- proliferating papillary cystadenoma,
- endemic goiter,
There are other causes of thyroid cancer are genetic predisposition, living in areas with iodine deficiency and deficiency of this trace element.
Classification of thyroid cancer
In the classification of the disease is dominated by epithelial shape, although diagnosed malignant tumors can be quite variable in structure. According to the degree of malignancy there are three groups of tumors:
- potentially malignant, that is low-grade: papillary cystadenoma (they have a benign structure but possess a tendency to relapse and is able to grow into blood vessels), follicular adenoma,
- the average degree of malignancy: papillary adenocarcinoma, malignant adenoma,
- a high degree of malignancy: analizirovali and small cell lung cancer, sarcoma, lymphosarcoma.
If the classification of thyroid cancer will be analyzed from a statistical point of view, i.e. taking into account the detection of one form or another, we get the following picture:
- 76% of papillary cancer,
- 14% follicular cancer,
- 5-6% of medullary carcinoma,
- up to 4% and anaplastic cancer nedifferentsirovannost,
- about 2% fibrosarcoma, sarcoma, lymphoma, and metastatic epidermoid cancer.
Diseases of low - and srednelatentnykh forms almost never metastasize, and high malignant forms (and analizirovali sarcoma and small-cell disease) are characterized by early appearance of metastasis. Most often metastases of thyroid cancer are striking in cervical lymph nodes, although can affect the pleura, brain, kidneys, bones, lungs and liver.
Symptoms of thyroid cancer
It should be noted that the symptoms of thyroid cancer in the early stages of the disease are not expressed. The reason for frequent surveys can be a long existing benign goiter. The earliest objective signs are considered the rapid growth of existing tumors, the occurrence of seals and feel the tuberosity of the thyroid gland. Asymptomatic emerged and rapidly progressive node on her thyroid should also be an occasion for a thorough examination because it can be a sign of the formation of tumors (however, the single nodes are almost always benign, but that is no reason to refuse testing).
The growth of the tumor is rounded and smooth, dense texture is bumpy, gets vague boundaries and can capture one or several shares. Most often the tumor is growing back and she can grow the pancreatic capsule and squeeze the trachea and the recurrent laryngeal nerve. This, in turn, provokes shortness of breath, hoarseness, shortness of breath. With involvement of other organs, you experience the following signs of thyroid cancer:
- when compression of the esophagus have swallowing disorders (dysphagia),
- with involvement of the neck muscles, tissue and the neurovascular bundle on the skin becomes visible a dense network of strongly enlarged veins
- in addition, the tumor growth leads to discomfort in the neck,
- cough, shortness of breath until suffocation
- the increase in size of cervical lymph nodes, theirmerge in conglomerates,immobility,
- headaches if in brain damage and impaired speech, thinking, movement coordination
- pain in bones when bone metastases,
- fatigue and weakness in the liver, and a fever and pain in the right hypochondrium.
Methods of diagnosis of thyroid cancer
It should be noted that there are specific symptoms that indicate it is on cancer. For these purposes, and provides diagnosis of thyroid cancer. Thus functional studies of the body have no practical value, since hormonal activity, malignant tumors do not possess. Initial stage of the disease can be detected through palpation examination, but the results just this study the diagnosis is not approved.
Radioisotope scanning has an important role in the diagnosis of the disease. In this case, a radioisotope of iodine, and the tumor is the location of the defect of accumulation of the isotope. However, to separate benign and malignant tumors, this method is not able to. The most acceptable differential method confirm the diagnosis a biopsy. More precisely this picture of the disease may reflect the surgical procedure.
Surgical method is used when other ways to confirm a diagnosis is not possible. Prevalence rates can provide a picture and histological and cytological studies. In the case of lesions of recurrent nerves is performed and laryngoscopy (examination of larynx and vocal cords). Bronchoscopy is performed for inspection of the trachea in order to determine whether it is narrowed.
Further studies are also:
- pneumography thyroid: allows you to specify the germination of the tumor into the surrounding tissue,
- angiography: reveals abnormalities in the vascular network characteristic of cancer
- rentgenografija trachea, contrast study of the esophagus for determination of malignant lesions,
- ultrasound has more preventative value, allows to detect early tumors and nodes. With the help of ultrasound can also perform a targeted biopsy of the thyroid gland.
Prevention of cancer of the thyroid gland
It is very important to avoid iodine deficiency it is recommended regular consumption of seaweed and iodized salt. It is also important to avoid frequent x-rays of the neck and head.
Basic preventive measures, timely identification of thyroid disease and adequate treatment. It is also important not to ignore preventive checkups, especially if you are in the group of potential risk. Any break in the mood, especially long-continued, and with increasing symptoms should be discussed with your doctor.