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Cancer of the colon. Why did this happen?

Colon cancer (colorectal cancer) on the prevalence of one of the most common amongst malignant tumors. In Russia over the past 20 years he has moved from 6th place on the 4.

What causes the development of colon cancer?

Causes of colon cancer, like any other malignant neoplasm is not known. Scientists usually speak about unfavorable and precipitating factors that contribute to the development of the disease.

Predisposing factors

  • Improper nutrition,
  • Adverse environmental conditions,
  • Other diseases of the colon,
  • Genetic predisposition.

stadii raka tolstoj kishkiStatistically lower incidence of colorectal cancer in rural areas and in countries dominated by plant foods. Fiber increases the volume of fecal masses, binds toxins, accelerates the passage of intestinal contents to the "exit". Thus, the contact of the walls of the colon carcinogens less, then the risk of developing cancer is also less.

Meat foods also increases the amount of intestinal fatty acid that is converted during digestion into carcinogens. In areas where we eat a lot of meat, colon cancer is much more common.

Colorectal polyps, ulcerative colitis, the presence of these diseases increases the risk of developing cancer, since a region is formed, which cells can undergo changes and become malignant.

Symptoms of colon cancer

  • Intestinal bleeding,
  • Abdominal pain,
  • Violation of the chair,
  • Tenesmus (false urge to defecate),
  • Loss of appetite,
  • Weight loss body
  • In the later stages of enlargement of the liver, ascites.

The most common symptoms of colon cancer the presence of blood and disorders of defecation. Almost all patients the blood to the chair. The allocation of blood of scarlet colour is characteristic for tumors located in the anal canal or rectum. Darker blood, blood mixed with mucus is characteristic of the cancer developing in the left part of the colon. When localization of cancer in the right half of the colon is often found occult blood which may also be common symptoms caused by anemia: pallor, weakness.

Violations of the stool and difficulty in defecation are usually found at late stages of cancer. Sometimes without prior symptoms colon cancer there is acute intestinal obstruction.

The treatment of colon cancer

Any treatment starts with diagnosis. In case of any intestinal symptoms in people older than 50 years should not be ruled out of suspicion for colorectal cancer.

The diagnostic algorithm in this case includes an analysis of complaints of the patient, digital rectal exam, colonoscopy, ultrasound of the abdomen and pelvis, clinical tests, a biopsy of the tumor tissues.


  • Surgical (radical removal of the tumor, regional lymph nodes).
  • Radiation therapy.
  • Chemotherapy.

The leading method of treatment is surgical. Remove the tumor and part of colon. When removing a small segment of the fused rectum, and intestines can function normally. When you remove a large part of the intestine, it replaces the small intestine or an artificial tube. In severe cases, a colostomy is displayed to delete the contents of the intestine. Also colostomy may be necessary when localization of cancer in the rectum.

To reduce the tumor and prevent recurrence and metastasis radiation therapy. Chemotherapy for colon cancer has become widely used only recently. This method is the overall impact on the body, so it needs to be carefully calibrated to the harm exceeded the benefits.


  • The destruction of tumor cells
  • Pause in its growth,
  • Reducing the size of the tumor before surgery
  • Prevention of metastases.

What is the prognosis in colon cancer?

Prognosis very dependent on stage of disease. When operation is in the initial stages the five year survival rate for colon cancer approaches 90%. The further spreading process, the less likely the patient is to live some number of years. So, when lymph nodes five-year survival is reduced to 50%. But colon cancer stage 4, when formed distant metastases, occurs when damage to other organs means that only 5% of patients after surgery will be able to overcome the threshold of the five-year survival rate.

All these figures prove that it is necessary to be attentive to their health, not to neglect the preventive examinations and regular tests. Because in many cases the treatment of cancer could begin sooner, thereby to extend the life and improve its quality.