As manifest metastases?
Cancers are the result of the occurrence in an organism of genetically damaged cells, which are characterized by a malignant phenotype and uncontrolled division. A so-called primary tumor tumor that can be clinically determined. If cancer cells can invade surrounding healthy tissue, then there is a speech about a process like metastasis. It is impossible to answer the question, as manifest metastases, because they can affect various organs and systems. Under the move refers to metastases of malignant cells, able to form new tumor in a different organ. Then talk about metastatic tumors develop in the last stages of the underlying disease and very dangerous for life.
The features of the process of metastasis
How look the metastases and how they develop depends largely on operating within the body processes. So, theoretically, it is believed that in time the tumor without distant metastasis should not leave traces in the body. However, in practice it is impossible to establish whether the individual has penetrated the malignant cells in the lymph or blood. To identify this fact will take time, so that patients after tumor removal are surveyed within two years every quarter.
Then how the spread of cancer metastasis depend on the location of the primary tumor. The growth rate also influence this process, for example, metastases in the skin are rather rare. Because the surface forms of a cancer and grow slowly, and metastasize infrequently. But infiltrative tumors characterized by high rate of formation of metastasis. A lot depends on the age of the patient surprisingly, the young patients suffer metastasis and relapses are heavier than older.
Principal of metastases
Most often, the types of metastasis is determined by the way they spread. For certain tumors have their own specific way that allows modern diagnostics and to find distant metastases. So, the type of metastasis are:
- hematogenous: dissemination of cells from the bloodstream. These metastases are characterized by a high degree of malignancy. In addition, they can produce even a small tumor, so that the disease is found incidentally during an examination, accompanied by another disease,
- lymphogenous: posted by limfoottoka and characteristic of these tumors, which grow from the epithelium and connective tissues (melanoma and sarcoma). To avoid such proliferation, in the process of surgery removes not only the tumor but also regional lymph nodes,
- implant: formed as a result of contact of cancer cells in abdominal fluid (for example, metastases in the peritoneum may be due to small tumors of neighboring organs). For the diagnosis in this case is puncture
- mixed or dormant: are carried throughout the body in any way. Their main feature is the extremely slow growth and ability to survive for long periods in an inactive form. For their destruction, and appointed a course of chemotherapy for example, dormant metastases in the urinary bladder may occur several years later under the influence of any stress to the body situation.
The development of metastases, some statistics
There is information about the fact that most metastases affect the bone. For example, metastases in the hip joint can be a consequence of any malignant neoplasm. If we talk about the sex of the patients, there are the following regularities:
- men often have metastases in the result of cancer of the lung, kidney or prostate
- the fairer sex areto be the result of kidney cancer, thyroid, or mammary glands.
Answering the question of whether metastases are sick, it is possible to give a definite positive answer. The clinical picture is characterized by metastasis that is growing severe pain. This symptom occurs as a result of constant stimulation of nerve endings. If we talk about the most common metastatic lesion of bone, it too is characterized by changes in blood (increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, anemia, increased calcium levels and so on), frequent fractures.
Bone tissue is affected by two types of metastasis:
- osteoblastic metastases: they are characterized by compaction of the mineral bone,
- osteolytic metastases, in contrast, lead to a thinning of the bone tissue.
Metastases discovered is subjected to the treatment. You can specify whether the metastases are treated by surgery? As a rule, to eliminate distant cancers use other methods of treatment, particularly chemotherapy. However, the choice of treatment can be made only after a comprehensive diagnosis. For this purpose, x-ray and computed tomography. By the way, sometimes it so happens that suspicious symptoms are exactly the metastases, and then continues the search for the primary tumor.